Close this search box.

How Attachment Styles Impact Relationships: Healing Relational Trauma

mom with baby representing secure attachment with therapy in san francisco
Table of Contents

Do you find it challenging to form secure and fulfilling relationships? Are you often plagued by fear of abandonment or struggle with intimacy? Are you constantly afraid of losing yourself in a relationship?

If so, you might be dealing with an insecure adult attachment style. In this article, we’ll explore the four attachment styles, how we develop them, and how Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) can help you heal from insecure attachment patterns and cultivate healthier, more secure behaviors in relationships. Bear in mind that an insecure attachment style is a not disorder. Attachment styles are malleable; they aren’t rigid and can be influenced and shaped in relationships.

Understanding Attachment Theory

A couple discussing attachment theory

Attachment styles develop in our early years and influence how we perceive and interact with others. Insecure attachment can leave us feeling self-conscious, uncertain, and fearful in our relationships, interfering with our ability to form deep connections and find emotional security.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is an evidence-based therapeutic approach that offers effective strategies to address and overcome these challenges. CBT helps us understand the core beliefs and schemas that underlie our attachment style and empowers us to develop healthier thought patterns, change self-defeating behaviors, and cultivate secure attachment behaviors.

John Bowlby and Attachment Theory

John Bowlby, a psychologist and psychiatrist, developed attachment theory. He believed that early relationships significantly impact human development. According to Bowlby and attachment theory, infants instinctively seek closeness and emotional connection with their primary caregiver for safety and survival. He identified four attachment styles: secure, anxious-ambivalent, avoidant, and disorganized.

Bowlby emphasized that a secure attachment provides a foundation for a child to explore the world and build trust. He also emphasized that attachment experiences shape a person’s beliefs (schemas) about themselves, others, and relationships. These beliefs impact how individuals interact with others in adulthood and affect the quality of their relationships.

The Strange Situation

In the 70s, Mary Ainsworth set up a research experiment termed the ‘Strange Situation’ to evaluate attachment security in children. In this study, a child and their caregiver go to a new room with toys and different things happen in the room to see how the child reacts.

First, the child explores the room while the caregiver is there. Then, a stranger comes into the room and tries to talk to the child. The caregiver stays in the room. Next, the caregiver leaves the room, and later comes back. The stranger also leaves and comes back. The child is alone in the room at times too.

During all of this, the child’s behavior is watched and recorded. Based on their behavior, researchers identified four types of attachment styles derived from how the children responded to different situations.

The four attachment styles:

1.  Secure attachment: Children with secure attachment feel comfortable exploring their surroundings when their caregiver is present. They may show some distress when the caregiver leaves, but they are easily comforted when the caregiver returns. These children seek closeness and use their caregiver as a secure base to explore the environment. They show a balance between independence and seeking support from their caregiver.

2.  Anxious-ambivalent attachment: Children with an anxious-ambivalent attachment style tend to become very upset when the caregiver leaves the room. They may display clingy behavior and have difficulty being comforted when the caregiver returns. These children often show mixed feelings about their caregiver, seeking closeness while also resisting comfort and being difficult to soothe.

3.  Dismissive-avoidant attachment: Children with a dismissive-avoidant attachment style may not show much distress when the caregiver leaves the room. They may avoid or ignore the caregiver upon their return and appear independent. These children often downplay the importance of their caregiver and may seem self-reliant, suppressing their attachment needs.

4.  Disorganized attachment: Children with disorganized attachment show inconsistent and contradictory behaviors in the strange situation. They may display confused or dazed behavior and have difficulties regulating their emotions. This attachment style is often associated with experiences of trauma or disrupted caregiving, and the child’s behavior can be unpredictable and disorganized.

These attachment styles provide insights into how children perceive and respond to their caregivers and influence their future social and emotional development. Attachment styles can be influenced by a variety of factors, including the child’s temperament, the caregiver’s responsiveness, and the quality of the caregiving environment.

Four Adult Attachment Styles

Attachment styles can be classified into four distinct types: secure, anxious, avoidant, and disorganized. Each style is characterized by specific behaviors and thought patterns that shape how individuals form and maintain relationships throughout their lives.

Understanding your own attachment style can provide insight into your bonding patterns and help identify any potentially unhealthy tendencies related to attachment in romantic relationships. Individuals with a secure attachment style tend to have strong and stable relationships built on trust, support, and emotional closeness.

On the other hand, those with insecure attachment may struggle to form deep connections and experience difficulties managing their anxiety, which can manifest as clinginess, apprehension, or unease when interacting with loved ones. In the following sections, we will explore each attachment style in more detail, providing insights into these patterns of relating.

Secure Attachment Style

A visual representation of how attachment styles affect relationships, with a focus on the secure attachment style

Individuals who have a secure attachment style feel comfortable with emotional closeness, trust in their relationships, and seek support from their partners.

Securely attached adults have a positive view of themselves and others, which allows them to form and maintain healthy, fulfilling relationships. They are adept at managing conflicts, expressing emotions, and maintaining emotional balance in their relationships.

Securely attached individuals often display higher levels of emotional awareness and distress tolerance, which helps them navigate interpersonal dynamics effectively. The foundation of a secure attachment style is typically established in early childhood through consistent and responsive caregiving.

When caregivers consistently meet the child’s emotional and physical needs, the child develops a sense of security and trust in their relationships. This promotes a positive internal working model, shaping the individual’s beliefs about themselves and others.

Securely attached individuals tend to have high self-esteem, view relationships as sources of support and comfort, and experience greater relationship satisfaction. Their ability to form and maintain emotionally intimate connections contributes to their overall well-being and happiness in close relationships.

Anxious-Ambivalent Attachment Style

If you have an anxious ambivalent (preoccupied) attachment style as an adult, your romantic relationships consist of high levels of anxiety, clinginess, and a constant need for reassurance and validation.

You often experience intense fear of abandonment and have a tendency to become overly dependent on your partner. You may exhibit preoccupied attachment behaviors, constantly seeking closeness and approval while simultaneously fearing rejection.

An anxious ambivalent attachment typically stems from inconsistent or unpredictable caregiving during early childhood. Caregivers who are sometimes responsive and nurturing, but at other times dismissive or neglectful, create an environment where the child cannot rely on consistent support and validation. As a result, the child becomes anxious and preoccupied with the availability of their caregiver, developing an insecure/preoccupied attachment style .

The origins of an anxious ambivalent attachment style can be attributed to the child’s experiences with inconsistent or inadequate caregiving. This may involve caregivers who are intermittently responsive and affectionate but also withdraw or reject the child’s bids for attention and closeness.

The inconsistency of the caregiver’s responses creates anxiety and confusion in the child, leading them to develop a hyper-vigilant and clingy approach to relationships. They learn to seek reassurance and validation from others in an attempt to alleviate their fear of rejection and abandonment.

As adults, individuals with an anxious ambivalent attachment style often struggle with trust and self-esteem, frequently doubting their worthiness of love and fearing that their partners will leave them.

Dismissive-Avoidant Attachment Style

If you have a dismissive avoidant attachment style as an adult, you tend to emotional distance in romantic relationships, have excessive autonomy, and avoid of intimacy. You often downplay the importance of close relationships and prioritize independence and self-sufficiency. You tend to suppress or dismiss your emotional needs and have a tendency to withdraw from romantic partners.

This attachment response occurs due to early encounters with rejection, neglect, or a lack of emotional attunement from the primary caregiver. Caregivers who consistently fail to meet the child’s emotional needs or create an atmosphere that discourages emotional openness can lead to the development of a fear and avoidance of closeness.

In this dynamic, the child’s bids for attention, comfort, or connection are consistently ignored, rejected, or met with emotional unavailability. As a result, the child learns to suppress their needs and emotions as a way to cope with the lack of responsiveness. They develop a self-reliant stance and learn to rely on themselves for emotional support and validation.

Over time, this pattern becomes ingrained, and individuals who are avoidant find it challenging to establish and maintain close, intimate relationships, as they have learned to avoid emotional vulnerability and connection.

Disorganized Attachment Style

Someone who has a disorganized (fearful avoidant) attachment style in adulthood, engages in contradictory behaviors and coping mechanisms. If you have a fearful avoidant style you often exhibit a mix of both fearful avoidant and anxious tendencies, leading to confusion and inconsistency in your relationships.

This style of attachment is thought to develop as a result of traumatic or abusive experiences in early childhood, where the primary caregiver is both the source of fear and the potential source of comfort. The child’s attempts to seek safety and proximity to the caregiver are met with unpredictable and frightening responses, leading to a disorganized and disoriented approach to attachment.

As a result, individuals with a disorganized attachment style may struggle with trust, emotional and sexual intimacy, dissociation, and regulating their emotions in adult relationships. Factors such as parental neglect, abuse, unresolved trauma, or inconsistent caregiving can contribute to becoming fearful avoidant in adult relationships.

For example, a caregiver who exhibits frightening or abusive behaviors towards the child may create a sense of danger and unpredictability in their attachment system. The child is caught in a paradoxical situation where the caregiver is both the source of fear and the potential source of protection.

This inconsistent and confusing experience disrupts the child’s ability to form a coherent and organized attachment strategy, leading to the emergence of a disorganized attachment style. The effects of this attachment style can persist into adulthood, impacting the individual’s ability to form healthy and stable relationships.

How Early Experiences Shape Adult Relationships

Parents and child interacting

Our early experiences shape our attachment style in our adult relationships. Our childhood experiences with caregivers, trauma history, and genetic factors all influence the way we attach to others as adults. We learn to regulate our emotions through co-regulation, where our parents attend to our emotional needs. They mirror our emotions, helping us understand and manage our feelings.

If our parents don’t accurately respond to our emotions, we may become confused about our internal experiences. Neglect, misattunement, abuse, and lack of boundaries during childhood can cause attachment wounds. Being a parentified child, taking care of our parents’ needs, also affects our attachment style.

These early experiences shape how we relate to others in adulthood. Recognizing these influences helps us change maladaptive coping patterns and heal from any negative impacts on our relationships.

Parent-Child Relationships

parent-child relationship impact on attachment styles

Parent-child relationships play a significant role in shaping how we attach and influencing the development of our attachment patterns throughout life. These early relationship experiences shape individuals’ perceptions of themselves and others, impacting their adult relationships, including romantic relationships, with either positive or negative patterns of relating.

During early childhood, the primary caregiver serves as the main source of comfort, security, and support for the child. The quality of this relationship forms the foundation for the child’s attachment style.

When caregivers consistently provide responsive and nurturing care, the child develops a secure attachment style. This secure attachment creates a positive perception of themselves and others, facilitating trust, emotional security, and a belief in the availability of support in relationships.

Conversely, negative or inconsistent caregiving experiences can lead to insecure adult attachment. If caregivers are neglectful, dismissive, or abusive, children may develop an anxious, avoidant, or disorganized attachment style. A consistent, supportive and affectionate primary caregiver who attends to the child’s needs creates a feeling of safety and trust which gives rise to a confident way of attaching themselves.

Our early relationships imprint positive perceptions and negative perceptions on us that play out throughout adulthood with romantic partners. Studies suggest those exposed to affirming parenting in early relationship are more likely than others to attain successful long-term connections whereas inconsistent upbringing shapes difficulties forming healthy connections.

Relational Trauma and Attachment Styles

Relational trauma can have a profound impact on our relationship quality, influencing how we connect and relate to others. When we experience trauma or adverse experiences in relationships, it can disrupt our nervous system and sense of safety and security.

Core beliefs such as fear of abandonment, feelings of defectiveness, subjugation, or emotional deprivation can play a significant role in shaping our attachment styles. Insecure attachment styles can emerge as a result of these core beliefs.

Schemas trigger strong emotional and somatic experiences that are difficult to regulate. Relational trauma impacts our nervous system leading us to struggle with emotional regulation. People with insecure attachments may feel emotionally dysregulated and flooded by emotions when they get triggered in relationships.

Sociocultural and Epigenetic Factors

Attachment processes and parenting styles are influenced by a combination of sociocultural, epigenetic, and gender-related factors. Sociocultural influences, such as cultural norms and societal expectations, shape the attachment patterns that individuals develop.

Cultural beliefs about parenting, gender, social support systems, and economic circumstances all play a role in determining our adult attachment styles. Additionally, epigenetic factors, which involve the interplay between genes and the environment, contribute to the formation of our attachment system. Gender norms play a role in shaping attachment styles.

Research suggests that women are more likely to exhibit anxious attachment styles, characterized by a fear of abandonment and a strong desire for closeness, while men are more likely to display avoidant attachment styles, characterized by a fear of intimacy and a tendency to avoid emotional connection.

These gender differences in attachment styles can be attributed to societal expectations, epigenetics, and gender roles that influence how individuals perceive and express their needs and emotions in relationships

Attachment Styles in Romantic Relationships

A couple discussing communication and conflict resolution

Our early childhood interactions shape our adult social and personal relationships. In particular, our adult attachment styles play a significant role in shaping our romantic relationships, affecting how we communicate and resolve conflict.

Our adult attachment styles influence our emotional connections, dictating our comfort with vulnerability, how we both express and receive affection, and our overall capacity for empathy. These styles also affect our sexual relationships, affecting intimacy boundaries, trust, and openness in communication about desires. 

In the next sections we will explore how each of the four main attachment styles and dynamics affect both communication in partnerships as well casual relationships such as having contrasting secure vs insecure attachments compared against each other – uncovering valuable understandings main the four attachment styles, that help us create healthier & enjoyable interactions with our significant others.

Communication and Conflict Resolution

Effective communication and conflict resolution are fundamental aspects of romantic relationships, particularly when considering the different attachment issues individuals may exhibit.

Each style impacts how we relate to our partner, manage conflict, and regulate our emotions. For example, an avoidant partner, who may have difficulties with intimacy and closeness, might struggle to express their needs and emotions openly. They may avoid confrontations or withdraw from conflicts, leaving their romantic partner feeling unheard or neglected.

In contrast, a secure partner tends to engage in open and honest communication, addressing conflicts directly and seeking resolution through understanding and compromise. An individual with an anxious-ambivalent attachment style may be overly complaint and deferring when managing conflict, which leads to them feel resentful, deprived, and emotionally dysregulated.

Complementary Attachment Styles

In romantic relationships, there can be complementary attachment styles or schemas that reinforce and maintain our attachment beliefs. This creates a strong chemistry between partners. For instance, someone with an anxious ambivalent attachment style, who has an abandonment schema, may be attracted to someone who is more avoidant and has a subjugation schema.

These complementary attachment styles can interact in ways that validate and perpetuate each other’s core beliefs. The anxious partner’s fear of abandonment may reinforce the avoidant partner’s tendency to withdraw or create distance, strengthening the belief that they are unworthy of love and care. This dynamic can create a powerful attraction and intensity in the relationship.

These dynamics can lead to challenges and increased conflicts. The anxious-avoidant combination may result in a push-pull dynamic, with the anxious partner seeking closeness and reassurance from the avoidant partner while the avoidant partner may struggle with intimacy and vulnerability. These conflicting needs can create tension and dissatisfaction within the relationship.

Overcoming Insecure Attachment

Achieving a secure relationship is possible through increasing self-awareness, learning skills, and practicing new behaviors in relationships. Recognizing the problematic aspects of an insecure connection can help you develop more stable attachment behaviors in relationships.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insecure Attachment

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) offers practical tools for overcoming insecure attachment and developing secure behaviors in relationships. It involves identifying and challenging schemas, clarifying deeply held values, learning communication skills and practicing new behaviors relationships.

Understanding the schemas that underlie our insecure attachment style can help us dismantle them and replace them with healthier and more secure behaviors. CBT provides techniques that help us deal with these core beliefs and break free from negative patterns. Through the therapeutic process, we learn to recognize and challenge distorted thoughts and negative self image and-perceptions that contribute to insecurity in relationships.

Actively working on reframing our thoughts and beliefs, helps us develop a more balanced and realistic view of ourselves and others. CBT also helps us identify our personal values, which serve as guiding principles for our behavior and decision-making.

A person feeling secure and content

Aligning our actions with our values supports us in creating more authentic and fulfilling connections with others, promoting secure and satisfying relationships. With CBT skills people can gain skills to enhance their emotional intelligence and proficiency at managing unsafe attachments while forming healthier bonds overall.

Having a secure attachment style can have a profound impact on mental health and overall well-being. When individuals have a secure attachment, they feel safe, supported, and emotionally connected in their relationships. This sense of security allows them to develop a positive self-image, as well as trust in others and the world around them.

One of the significant benefits of secure attachment is its positive influence on emotional regulation. Securely attached individuals tend to have better coping skills, as they have learned healthy ways to manage and express their emotions.

They are more likely to seek support and comfort from others during times of distress, which helps to regulate their emotions effectively. As a result, they experience lower levels of anxiety, depression, and stress, and are better equipped to navigate life’s challenges.

How we attach to others influences our romantic relationships, communication style, and how we manage conflicts. Our own attachment system and parenting style is impacted by many variables such as epigenetics, relational trauma, childhood experiences with caregivers and cultural aspects.

CBT, an evidence-based treatment, helps heal insecure attachment and develop secure behaviors in relationships. CBT can help you identify your schemas, challenge limiting beliefs, align your behaviors with personal values, and develop a balanced view of yourself and others. Through targeted techniques, it supports individuals in resolving attachment issues and acquiring effective coping strategies for healthier relationships.


At The Bay Area CBT Center, individuals and couples dealing with insecure attachment styles can find expert guidance from top-notch psychologists in San Francisco, CA. Our therapy focuses on developing effective tools to manage conflict constructively, reduce recurring conflicts, and deepen emotional connections. The process of relationship therapy at our center is collaborative, encouraging active participation in personal growth and the development of the relationship.

By working with one of our skilled therapists, such as a marriage therapist in San Francisco, individuals and couples can learn to resolve underlying issues related to insecure attachment styles. Our approach includes teaching effective communication skills and providing the necessary tools to build stronger, more fulfilling relationships.

We also offer online therapy in California, making our services accessible to a wider audience. Additionally, our workshops for relationships and couples are specifically designed to address the challenges of insecure attachment styles. We are dedicated to providing comprehensive counseling in San Francisco, ensuring personalized and empathetic support for each unique situation.

Frequently Asked Questions

Evidence-based therapy involves interventions that are scientifically proven to be effective for particular issues. In this approach, a strong partnership based on trust and collaboration is formed between you and your therapist. Within this supportive and unbiased environment, you can freely express yourself without fear of judgment. Over a series of sessions, you and your therapist will work together to address obstacles and set goals aimed at personal growth and fulfillment. This method ensures that the techniques and strategies used are not only supportive but also empirically validated to help you achieve your therapeutic goals.

The Bay Area CBT Center provides therapy services for everyone, from children to adults, and welcomes individuals, couples, and groups. We help with various concerns like anxiety, depression, trauma, relationship issues, and behavior challenges. We value diversity and cultural differences, offering personalized and culturally sensitive care to each client.

Studies show that the bond between you and your therapist, known as the therapeutic alliance, is a key factor in treatment success. This alliance is characterized by the strength of your relationship and how well you both agree on treatment goals. Research indicates that individuals with a solid therapeutic alliance experience better treatment outcomes including greater productivity at work, more satisfying relationships, improved stress management, and decreased engagement in risky behaviors.

You can expect a 15-30 minute phone call with our care coordinator, who is extensively trained in ensuring the perfect match for you. During this conversation, our matching expert will collaborate with you to understand your therapy needs, preferences, and scheduling availability. This discussion builds upon the information you provided during sign-up and offers an opportunity for you to address any personal questions or concerns you may have about therapy or our services at The Bay Area CBT Center. Following your conversation, we’ll pair you with the therapist who best aligns with your needs, goals, and preferences.

At your matching appointment, we will match you with a therapist specifically chosen for you and schedule your first session. Depending on your availability, you can expect to meet your therapist anywhere from one day to a week after this appointment.

Our approach to therapy includes a flexible hybrid model, blending both online and face-to-face sessions. This option is perfect for clients situated close to our clinics in the Bay Area who prefer the flexibility of choosing between virtual consultations or meeting their therapist in person. Our aim with hybrid care is to ensure every client is matched with the ideal therapist and therapy environment, be it from the convenience of your own home or in one of our clinics.

At the Bay Area CBT Center, we accept PPO insurance plans that allow you to use out-of-network providers. This means if your insurance plan is a PPO and it includes mental health benefits, you could get back some or all of the money you pay for our services, depending on what your insurance company allows. When you see one of our therapists, they’ll give you a superbill. You can send this superbill to your insurance company to ask for reimbursement. If you’re not sure if your insurance covers services from providers not in their network, it’s a good idea to give them a call and check.

You may be eligible to have 60-80% of your costs covered by out-of-network benefits.

Also, if you have an FSA (Flexible Spending Account), you can usually use it to pay for individual counseling sessions. It’s wise to double-check with your FSA provider or talk to your accountant to make sure that counseling sessions are considered an allowed expense.

You May Also Like


Services we Offer

Helping You Align Mind, Body, and Actions.

cbt therapists cbt therapy SF bay area california

Service 2

Individual Therapy

cbt online therapy and online counseling in SF bay area california

Service 2

Online Therapy

couple doing couples therapy and couples counseling in sf bay area california

Service 2

Couples Therapy

people doing CBT group therapy and workshops in san francisco california

Service 2

Groups & Workshops

coworkers doing CBT executive coaching in SF bay area california

Service 2

Executive Coaching

a man getting treatment with a counselor in san francisco ca

Service 2

Conditions We Treat

Check Out Our Books

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the Bay Area. You could say we wrote the books on it.

Our Groups & Workshops

Check Out Our CBT Quizzes

cbt therapy treatment services therapy

Procrastination Quiz

grief and loss

Relationship Schemas Quiz

Self-Compassion Quiz

workplace schemas questionnaire

Workplace Schemas Quiz

relationship satisfaction

Relationship Satisfaction Quiz

person struggling with a trauma bond

Complex Trauma Quiz